The miniature book graphic, in which the use of portraiture genre became frequent, is a rather popular form of art, although not fully explored. The popularity of the portrait genre in graphics is due to its literal reflection of the image of a person. The artist of the ex libris, addressing precisely this solution of the composition, takes on a great responsibility, because displaying the features of a particular person - the task is not simple, since the portrait can be both realistic and stylized. Emphasizing the social-typical features, the author thus reproduces through the image of an individual a general type of age, the environment. The portrait in the book of ex libris is not an analogue of photography, it is more labor-intensive and often occurs not only as "the image of the contemporary," but also on the sign of respect for personalities that have gone away into eternity.
"Portrait - one of the genres of painting, sculpture and graphics, dedicated to the image of a specific person ... Required to apply to all kinds of portraits - the transfer of individual similarity ..." - So begins definition of a portrait in the Dictionary of Terms of Fine Arts "[2, с. 31].
The portrait art is a separate genre in the ex libris, which is one of the most important for history, because the reproduction of images of certain personalities helps to reveal the views of society on the history of culture, sets priorities. The skill of the represented artists, who worked on the verge of centuries, testifies to the intensive flowering of the bookmark. Artists are experimenting widely with different techniques, thanks to the ability to layout many details into a small format, create unique samples of the ex libris. Portrait images become a frequent theme for bookmarks, which allows artists to bring new discoveries into the creation of an exlibris. Among the contemporary Ukrainian artists, there are many talented personalities who demonstrate their author's vision of the art of ex libris. The graphs of the older generation who created interesting examples of portrait ex libris include G. Sergeyev, B. Romanov, V. Leonenko, A. Litvinov and V. Okrutnii. All of them have passed the classic academic school of graphics. It gave them a solid knowledge base and helped demonstrate experimental techniques and original solutions.
Analysis of recent research and publications. One of the first ex librises devoted to the outstanding personality was the work of F. Zakharov (1882-1939), dated 1910-1913 years [3, с. 108]. It is reproduced in a miniature portrait of Pushkin by the artist of the XIX century Orest Kiprensky. Later, the tradition of the image of poets and writers in the ex libris will spread and become quite popular. Thus, in 1935, the Georgian artist V. Tsilosani performed an ex libris with a profile portrait of Taras Shevchenko for our fellow countryman in Leningrad, V. S. Savonko. About this, in his book writes art critic P. V. Nesterenko [4, с. 133] (1). Quite often, artists use human images in the composition of the ex libris. In particular, in the catalog of the 1992 "One hundred Book Signs of Gregory Korin", we can see the example of a stylized pair portrait in the artist's exposition for V. Lashka [5, с. 18]. Each artist has his own special style, in which he maximally emotionally reproduces the image of a particular person.
On the specifics of the reflection of specific features or the image of a person in general, read in the article by J. Berdichevsky "Art of the Exlibris" in the collection "Our friend-book." He mentions the works of Vladimir Masyk, in which subtle psychological images are created not only through portraits, but also through symbols and symbols close to the customer [6, с. 72].
Unresolved parts of the general problem that this article is devoted to. Psychological moments in the creation of a customer's portrait; features of work in the genre of a portrait on a small plane due to the specifics of the ex libris as a miniature work, and the contribution of Ukrainian artists to the development of this genre in the history of Ukrainian ex libris.
Goal. The purpose of the article is to popularize portraiture of Ukrainian masters exlicibrias, revealing features and national traits in their works.
Topicality. The urgency of this article is that portrait bookmarks are the most informative for the analysis of the social situation of the nation, which means that their research should be given special attention. Therefore, the contribution of every Ukrainian artist of the ex libris, which refers to the mentioned genre, is significant, because it testifies not only to the level of his skill, but also about the various approaches in the creation of miniatures
1. Khvorost, V. (1992). Ekslibrysy Volodymyru Bulbi, [Ex libris for Volodymyr Bulba] Dnipropetrovsk , Pivdenna palmira. [In Ukrainian].
2. Stasevych, V. (1972). Mystetstvo portretu [Portrait art] Moskva, Prosveshchenye. [In Russian]
3. Khudolei, V. (1999). Ekslybrys. Slovo y shtrykh (A. S. Pushkyn) [Ex libirs. Word and Stroke], Sankt-peterburh, Bahruzyn. [In Russian]
4. Nesterenko, P. (2016). Istoriia ukrainskoho ekslibrysa. [History of Ukrainian Ex libris] , Kyiv,Tempora. [In Ukrainian]
5. Sto knyzhkovykh znakiv Hryhoriia Korenia (1992), [Hundred book signs of Grigoriy Koren], Kyiv, Kyivska knyzhkova drukarnia naukovoi knyhy. [In Ukrainian]
6. Palazhchenko, V. ( 1977). Nash druh knyha [Our friend – book], Kyiv, Reklama. [In Ukrainian]
7. Serheieiev, G. (2018). Kolorovi stankovi hraviury. Kolorovi ekslibrysy. Mii ostannii herbarii [Color engravings. Colored ex librises. My last herbarium.] Kyiv, TOV Drukarnia Biznespolihraf. [In Ukrainian]
8. Nesterenko, P. (2016). LEONENKO Vasyl Fedorovych, [Leonenko V. F.] , Entsyklopediia suchasnoi Ukrainy. Retrieved from: http://esu.com.ua/search_articles.php?id=54271. [In Ukrainian]
9. Shevchenkiana v ekslibrysi. (2008), [Shevchenkiana in ex libris], Dnipropetrovsk, TOV Dniproknyha. [In Ukrainian]
10. Respublikanska vystavka Pysmennyky i heroi literaturnykh tvoriv v ekslibrysi. (1990), [Republican exhibition Writers and heroes of literature in ex libris], Kyiv, Dobrovilne tovarystvo liubyteliv knyhy ukrainskoi RSR. [In Ukrainian]