The images of the warrior saints in the Ukrainian icons with the life scenes of the late Middle Ages


Introduction. The images of Demetrius, Borys and Hlib, Archangel Michael, St. George constitute the largest number of monuments in the Ukrainian icon painting of the Late Middle Ages, which can be enlisted as a rank of holy warriors. 
Problem Statement. In icon painting of the Late Middle Ages the figures of warrior saints are presented with the added scenes of life and their activities. A detailed analysis of the iconographic, artistic and stylistic features of the icons of holy warriors in the context of the development of national culture will allow to analyze the images of the saints, to reveal the content of the works.
Purpose of the article is to ostend of artistic-stylistic, compositional, iconographic, figurative-content content of works of icon painting of the second half of XIV – beginning of XVI century, in which the image of holy warriors are present with the life scenes and scenes of their deeds.
Methods. In the article were uses general scientific methods: historical – in the reconstruction of the cultural situation of XIV – beginning of XVI century in the context of sacred art; systematic, with which it was possible to trace the dynamics of changes in the icon-painting canon of the holy warrior on the territory of Ukraine; comparative – in revealing stylistic tendencies in painting traditions on the basis of canonical plots of Orthodox icon painting; iconographic – in revealing the sign stability of images in the system of stylistic coordinates of the icon-canon, as well as stylistic changes that took place in the iconography of the studied period; art studies – to study the compositional-stylistic features of icon-painting monuments of this period.
Results. On example of memorials of Ukrainian art with the depiction of warriors saints with the scenes of life revealed the images of holy warriors, analyzed compositional construction, iconography, artistic-stylistic features. Payed attention to the iconographic plot "Killing the dragon" presented in "expanded" and "laconic" variants, as a reflection of the scene of life and miracles of St. George. 
Conclusion images of life cycles of holy warriors in the art of the Late Middle Ages are a significant thematic group among the complex of Ukrainian icons. In the meanwhile, holy warriors portrayed frontal, full-length (iconographic type of foot soldier), with ascetic gaze, monumental interpretation of the image, expressive drawing. Since in the medium the artists depicted the soldiers in a severe static image, the figures of the saints in the stamps were more free and dynamic to reveal the narrative of the plot of their acts. Artistic-style features of icons depicting holy warriors late XIV-early XV centuries. continue the principles of painting Kievan Rus in combination with the traditions Paleologicheskogo icon-painting style. From the XV century in the icons there are elements of Gothic that manifested itself in the image of an elongated figure of soldiers, helmets, and weapons – a sword.
Among the most common images of holy warriors is the figure of the Archangel Michael. In the mediator in the figure of a warrior, we see the embodiment of the image of the head over all angels, the military guard of the gates of paradise, the hero, who is the mediator between God and his people. Among the important attributes that appear in the art of the Late Middle Ages in the images of the Archangel is a symbolic stand, twisted in eight, symbolizing infinity and protecting from the dark forces of evil (Uroboros's image is a snake). In the figure of Demetrius of Thessalonica we see a popular Christian hero ready to defend his native land. In the images of the brothers Borys and Hlib, in the images of the living icon there are features of patriotism and asceticism.
In the Ukrainian art of the ХІV-ХVІ centuries. The iconography of St. John became the most popular. George in the plot "Miracle of the Snake", which is known in two versions: "Expanded" and "Laconic". At the end of the fifteenth century. the iconic motif "Miracle of the Snake" is complemented by the scenes of the life of St. George On the icons of St. George is presented on a horse, piercing through a long thin spear the snake's mouth served in an amorphous form. The very image of the warrior is not endowed with features of courage and militancy, but rather interpreted as a manifestation of spiritual struggle between the monster and the saints. The composition reads the folk principle, which manifested itself in such attributes as keys, horns, profile of the Moon on the wings of the snake and associated with the holiday of spring.

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