Stone in the artistic decoration of representative buildings of the public buildings of Lviv in the second half of the 19th century


The public buildings of Lviv, built during the second half of the 19th century, have a rich artistic arrangement in a representative group of premises. This is consistent with the common European traditions. Stone decoration and stone imitation were an important element of decoration of such premises, which, despite the aesthetic function, emphasized the status of the building. Accordingly, the purpose of the article is to determine the regularities of the use of a decorative stone and its imitations in the artistic arrangement of representative premises of Lviv's public buildings of the second half of the 19th century. Since the formation of the artistic structure of Lviv was oriented mainly to the capital city, Vienna, the situation is such that the availability of noble stone rocks, due to its geographical location, in the region of Galicia was limited, but the need for imitative tendencies was maintained. Along with this, by the end of the 19th century, various marble imitation techniques are widely used in decoration. There are clear regularities of used stone and imitation in accordance with the status of the building and the period of construction. According to the end of the 19th century, compared to the first significant buildings in the style of historicism, such as the Galician Sejm and Lviv Polytechnic, the artistic style of representative premises becomes extremely rich, where, along with numerous rocks of noble natural stone, various technical imitations are used, examples of such buildings are the Opera House and Halytska Savings Bank. Also, regularities are observed in the use of materials and technique of imitation the stone in various decorative and structural elements of the building of premises. So elements that have a high artistic and artistic value or are components of such are executed from noble stone rocks. For the integrity of the composition, often imitation was performed with the most accurate reflection of natural stone rocks already present in a single space. The details of the structure, which perform a constructive function, or placement in places with high probability of mechanical damage, were executed from rocks of limestone and sandstone. Also, these stone rocks were used in early public buildings in the style of historicism in all elements of sculptural and decorative plastics, which was due to the economic situation and the availability of these materials.

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