Mural paintings in the decoration program of the residential buildings entrance spaces in Eastern Galicia at the end of the XIXth – first third of the XXth century

Issue: 
Pages: 
79-87
Abstract: 

Background. Mural paintings occupy a special place in the ensemble decoration program of the residential buildings entrance spaces in Eastern Galicia at the end of the XIXth – first third of the XXth century. They are at the same level with decorative sculpture, exquisite staircase forging, ornamental floor decor, and polychrome stained glass. Not only do the decorative compositions in the entrance spaces mural paintings serve as a stylistic feature of decoration, but also are a component of owner's self-identification, testify to their aesthetic preferences and cultural level, demonstrate their material capacities. Practically all wealthy residential buildings and villas of the late XIXth – early XXth centuries contained murals as a necessary element of decoration. They were guided by the principle of uniqueness of each art piece. Preserved mural paintings are characterized by the high quality of execution, variety of scenes and color decisions. 
Many foreign and Ukrainian scholars look into the aesthetics of architecture and the interaction of the synthesis of arts in it: Y. Biryulov, T. Kazantseva, L. Polischuk, O. Silnyk, I. Zhuk, M. Studnytska and others. However, the authors do not analyze mural paintings of the residential buildings interior in Eastern Galicia, especially of the entrance spaces, which are a buffer zone between outside and inside of the building. Thus, at present, numerous design elements that are in the entrance spaces of residential buildings are at risk of extinction. That is why we need to stress the problem of preservation of the authentic artistic paintings within the program of lobbies and stairwells decoration in the residential buildings of Eastern Galicia at the end of the XIXth – first third of the XXth century. For this reason, our research is relevant and topical.
The objectives of this article are to typologize artistic mural paintings in the decoration of the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia at the end of the XIXth – first third of the XXth century according to the stylistic forms (neo-gothic, neo-renaissance, neo-baroque, neo-baroque, neo-rococo, in the empire style and modern) and to classify them into thematic (mythological and allegorical images) and ornamental compositions.
Methods. The article uses a complex method of architectural-stylistic and art-study analysis, which covers traditional general scientific approaches to the solution of the tasks. Additionally, the method of field studies has been applied, through which we can obtain reliable information on the status of entrance spaces of living buildings in modern conditions.
According to the results of the field studies, the mural paintings in the decoration of the entrance spaces of residential buildings in East Galicia of the late XIXth – first third of the XXth century have been analyzed. Types of paintings were typologies (neo-gothic, neo-renaissance, neo-baroque, neo-rococo, in the empire style and modern). The mural paintings are classified according to the motives (mythological and allegorical images) and ornamental compositions. The correlation between the adornment of ceilings and walls and other arts in the decoration of the entrance spaces of the Eastern Galician residential buildings at the end of the XIXth – first third of the XXth century has been traced.
Conclusions. The architecture of each historical period is characterized by a certain color scheme. In the palette of paintings of the late XIXth – early XX centuries the pastel shades are dominant. They create a particularly elevated atmosphere in the interior of the entrance spaces due to the nuance of tone and color. The architectural and artistic themes on the facades of a building are often supported in the interior – entrance spaces. The stylish total ability of decoration does not interfere with their complex texture and color, which is used, all the elements highlight each other, transferring in the tonal emotionality of the system set by the paintings. Unfortunately, the number of mural paintings in the entrance spaces of residential buildings are often being fixed or non-professionally restored (like the mural paintings on 14 Kravchuk St. in Lviv). Because of these factors, the authentic colors fade away and their value significantly decreases. Moreover, mural paintings often crumble as time passes.
 

UDC: 
747:728.2:75.052](477.83/.86-25)“18/19”
Language of publication: 
Українська
References: 

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